Dorsal Column Stimulation
Boswell MV, Trescot AM, Datta S, et al. Interventional techniques: evidence-based practice guidelines in the management of chronic spinal pain. Pain Physician. 2007:10(1):7-11.
Cruccu G, Aziz TZ, Garcia-Larrea L, et al. EFNS guidelines on neurostimulation therapy for neuropathic pain. Eur J Neurol. 2007; 14(9):952-70.
Kumar K, Taylor RS, Jacques L, et al. Spinal cord stimulation versus conventional medical management for neuropathic pain: a multicentre randomized controlled trial in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. Pain. 2007;132(1-2):179-88.
Lanner G, Spendel MC. Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;97(Pt 1):79-84.
North RB, Kidd, Shipley J, Taylor RS. Spinal cord stimulation versus reoperation for failed back surgery syndrome: a cost effectiveness and cost utility analysis based on a randomized, controlled trial. 2007;61(2):361-8.
DeVries J, DeJongste MJ, Durencamp A, et al. The sustained benefits of long-term neurostimulation in patients with refractory chest pain and normal coronary arteries. Eur J Pain. 2007;11(3):360-5.
Neurostimulation Technology for the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Focus on Spinal Cord Stimulation, Expert Reveiw of Medical Devices, Volume 4 (2), March 2007
Chou R. Generating evidence on spinal cord stimulation for failed back surgery syndrome: not yet fully charged. Clin J Pain. 2008;24(9):757-8.
Jang HD, Kim MS, Chang CH, et al. Analysis of failed spinal cord stimulation trials in the treatment of intractable chronic pain. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2008;43(2):8509.
Kemler MA, de Vet HC, Barendse GA, et al. Effect of spinal cord stimulation for chronic complex regional pain syndrome Type I: five-year final follow-up of patients in a randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg.2008;108(2):292-8.
Kumar K, Taylor RS, Jacques L, et al. The effects of spinal cord stimulation in neuropathic pain are sustained: a 24 month follow-up of the prospective randomized controlled multicenter trial of the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation. Neurosurgery. 2008;63(4):762-70.
Manca A, Kumar K, Taylor RS, et al. Quality of life, resource consumption and costs of spinal cord stimulation versus conventional medical management in neuropathic pain patients with failed back surgery syndrome (PROCESS trial). Eur J Pain. 2008;4(9):472-3.
Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris
McNab D, Khan SN, Sharples LD, et al. An open-label, single-centre, randomized trial of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) vs. percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR) in patients with refractory angina pectoris: the SPiRiT trial. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(9):1048-53.
Eddicks S, Maier-Hauff K, Schenk M. Thoracic spinal cord stimulation improves functional status and relieves symptoms in patients with refractory angina pectoris: the first placebo-controlled randomized study. 2007;93(5):585-90.
Bondesson S, Pettersson T, Erdling A, et al. Comparison of patients undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation for refractory angina pectoris. Coron Artery Dis. 2008;19(8):627-34.
Borjesson M, Andrell P, Lundberg D, et al. Spinal cord stimulation in severe angina pectoris—a systematic review based on the Swedish Council on Technology assessment in health care report on long-standing pain. Pain. 2008;140(3):501-8.
Dyer MT, Goldsmith K, Khan S, et al. Clinical and cost-effectiveness analysis of an open label, single-centre, randomized trial of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) versus percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR) in patients with refractory angina pectoris: The SPiRiT trial. Trials. 2008;9:40.
Fricke E, Eckert S, Dongas A, et al. Myocardial sympathetic innervation in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: follow-up after 1 year with neurostimulation. J Nucl Med. 2008;49(9):1458-64.
Khan SN, McNabb DC, Sharples LD, et al. A study to assess changes in myocardial perfusion after treatment with spinal cord stimulation and percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization; data from a randomized trial. Trials. 2008;9:9.
Mesa JE, Yakovlev AE. Treatment of intractable angina pectoris utilizing spinal cord stimulation. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2008;9(1):70-4.
Eckert S, Horstkotte D. Management of angina pectoris: the role of spinal cord stimulation. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2009;9(1):17-28.
Fricke E, Eckert S, Dongas A, et al. Myocardial perfusion after one year of spinal cord stimulation in patients with refractory angina. Nuklearmedizin. 2009;48(3):104-109.
Taylor RS, DeVries J, Buchser E, Dejongste MJ. Spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of refractory angina: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009;9:13.
Clinical Trial NCT00121654
Clinical Trial NCT00157742
Clinical Trial NCT 00200070
Critical Limb Ischemia
Claeys LG, Berg W, Jonas S. Spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of chronic critical limb ischemia. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;97(Pt 1):259-65.
Pedrini L, Magnoni F. Spinal cord stimulation for lower limb ischemic pain treatment. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007 Aug;495-500.
Simpson EL, Duenas A, Holmes MW, et al. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain of neuropathic or ischemic origin: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2009;13(17):1-54.
Deer TR. Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of angina and peripheral vascular disease. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13(1):18-23.
Klomp HM, Steyerberg EW, Habbema JD, van Urk H. What is the evidence on efficacy of spinal cord stimulation in (subgroups of) patients with critical limb ischemia? Ann Vasc Surg. 2009;23(3):355-63.
Deep Brain Stimulation
Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders, Neurosurg Clin N Am, Vol. 9, Issue 2, 04/1998
Unilateral Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Essential Tremor and Parkinson's Disease Tremor, Neurology, Vol. 51, Issue 4, 10/1998
Neuropsychological and Quality of Life Outcome After Thalamic Stimulation for Essential Tremor, Neurology, Vol. 53, Issue 8, 11/1999
Appleby BS, Duggan PS, Regenberg A, et al. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with deep brain stimulation: A meta-analysis of ten years’ experience. Mov Disord. 2007; 22(12):1722-8.
Damier P, Thobois S, Witjas T, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus to treat tardive dyskinesia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(2):170-6.
Egidi M, Franzini A, Marras C et al. A survey of Italian cases of dystonia treated by deep brain stimulation. J Neurosurg Sci. 2007;51(4):153-8.
Kenney C, Simpson R, Hunter C et al. Short-term and long-term safety of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of movement disorders. J Neurosurg. 2007;106(4):621-5.
Kern DS, Kumar R. Deep brain stimulation. Neurologist. 2007;13(5):237-52.
Kiss ZH, Doig-Beyaert K, Eliasziw M et al. Functional and Stereotactic Section of the Canadian Neurological Society; Canadian Movement Disorders Group. The Canadian multicentre study of deep brain stimulation for cervical dystonia. Brain. 2007;130(Pt 11):2879-86.
Maciunas RJ, Maddux BN, Riley DE, et al. Prospective randomized double-blind trial of bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation in adults with Tourette syndrome. J Neurosurg. 2007;107(5):1004-14.
Vidailhet M, Vercueil L, Houeto JL et al. Bilateral, pallidal, deep-brain stimulation in primary generalized dystonia: a prospective 3 year follow-up study. Lancet Neurol. 2007; 6(3): 223-9.
Hauptman JS, DeSalles AA, Espinoza R, et al. Potential surgical targets for deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant depression. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25(1):E3
Larson PS. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2008;5(1):50-8.
Mallet L, Polosan M, Jaafari N, et al. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in severe obsessive-compulsive disorder. N Engl J Med; 2008;359(20):2121-34
Mueller J, Skogseid IM, Benecke R et al. Pallidal deep brain stimulation improves quality of life in segmental and generalized dystonia: results from a prospective, randomized sham-controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2008;23(1):131-4.
Servello D, Porta M, Sassi M, et al. Deep brain stimulation in 18 patients with severe Gelles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) refractory to treatment: the surgery and stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(2):136-42.
Welter ML, Mallet L, Houeto JL, et al. Internal pallidal and thalamic stimulation in patients with Tourette syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(7):952-7.
Witt K, Daniels C, Reiff J et al. Neuropsychological and psychiatric changes after deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease: a randomized, multicentre study. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(7):605-14 (Clinical Trial NCT 00196911).
Bartsch T, Paemeleire K, Goadsby RJ. Neurostimulation approaches to primary headache disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22(3):262-8.
Cersosimo MG, Raina GB, Benarroch EE et al. Micro lesion effect of the globus pallidus internus and outcome with deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease and dystonia. Mov Disord. 2009 [Epub ahead of print] accessed 06/02/2009.
Giacobbe P, Mayberg HS, Lozano AM. Treatment resistant depression as a failure of brain homeostatic mechanisms: Implications for deep brain stimulation. Exp Neurol. 2009 [Epub ahead of print] accessed 06/02/2009.
Hamani C, Mayberg H, Snyder B, et al. Deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulated gyrus for depression: anatomical location of active contacts in clinical responders and a suggested guideline for targeting. J Neurosurg. 2009 [Epub ahead of print] accessed 06/02/2009.
Isaias IU, Alterman RL, Tagliati M. Deep brain stimulation for primary generalized dystonia: long-term outcomes. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(4):465-70.
Weaver FM, Follett K, Stern M et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation vs. best medical therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301(1):63-73 (NCT 00056563).
Volkman J, Albanese A, Kulisevsky J et al. Long-term effects of pallidal or subthalamic deep brain stimulation on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009 [Epub ahead of print] accessed 06/02/2009.
Wang X, Chang C, Geng N, et al. Long-term effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009. [Epub ahead of print] accessed 06/02/2009.
Bernstein C. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain. Spine-health. http://www.spine-health.com/treatment/back-surgery/spinal-cord-stimulation-chronic-pain Web accessed March 20, 2013
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
Long-Term Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) Use: Impact on Medication Utilization and Physical Therapy Costs, Clin J Pain, Vol. 14, Issue 1, 03/1998
Treatment of Neuropathic Pain in a Patient with Diabetic Neuropathy Using Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Applied to the Skin of the Lumbar Region, Physical Therapy, Vol. 79, Issue 8, 08/1999
Use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in a Young Child with Pain from Open Perineal Lesions, J Pain Symptom Manage, Vol. 18, Issue 5, 11/1999
Khadilkar A, Odebiyi DO, Brosseau L, et al. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) versus placebo for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(4)
Nnoaham KE, Kumbang J. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(3):CD003222.
Robb KA, Bennett MI, Johnson ME, et al. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(3):CD006276
Sikuru L, Shmaila H, Muhammed SA. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Int Braz J Urol. 2008;34(6):708-13.
Tella BA, Unubum EV, Danesi MA. The effect of TENS on selected symptoms in the management of patients with chronic tension type headache: a preliminary study. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2008;18(1)25-9.
Cipriano G Jr., de Camargo Carvalho AC, Bernardelli GF, et al. Short-term transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after cardiac surgery: effect on pain, pulmonary function and electrical muscle activity. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008;7(4):539-43.
DeSantana JM, Santana-Filho VJ, Guerra Dr, et al. Hypoalgesic effect of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation following inguinal herniorrhaphy: a randomized, controlled trial. J Pain. 2008;9(7):623-9.
Emmiler M, Solak O, Kocogullari C, et al. Control of acute postoperative pain by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after open cardiac operations: a randomized placebo-controlled prospective study. Heart Surg Forum. 2008;11(5):E300-3.
Desantana JM, Sluka KA, Lauretti GR. High and low frequency TENS reduce postoperative pain intensity after laparoscopic tubal ligation: a randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain. 2009;25(1):12-9.
Dowswell T, Bedwell C, Lavender T, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD007214.
Walsh DM, Howe TE, Johnson ME, et al. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for acute pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 (2):CD006142.
Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (PENS)
Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (PENS): A Complementary Therapy for the Management of Pain Secondary to Bony Metastasis, Clin J Pain, Vol. 14, Issue 4, 12/1998
Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Low Back Pain, A Randomized Crossover Study, Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 281, No. 9, 03/1999
Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: An Alternative to TENS in the Management of Sciatica, Pain, Vol. 83, Issue 2, 11/1999
Weiner DK, Perera S, Rudy TE et al., Efficacy of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and therapeutic exercise for older adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2008;140(2):344-57.
Implanted Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Pain, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Volume 14 (3), March 2007
Melvin EA Jr., Jordan FR, Weiner RL, Primm D. Using peripheral stimulation to reduce pain of C2-mediated occipital headaches: a preliminary report. Pain Physician. 2007;10(3):453-60.
Slavin KV. Peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic craniofacial pain. Acta Neruochir Suppl. 2007;97(pt 1):115-20.
Asensio-Samper JM, Villanueva VL, Perez AV, et al. Peripheral neurostimulation in supraorbital neuralgia refractory to conventional therapy. Pain Pract. 2008;8(2):120-4.
Rauchwerger JJ, Giordano J, Rozen D, et al. On the therapeutic viability of peripheral nerve stimulation for ilioinguinal neuralgia: Putative mechanisms and possible utility. Pain Prac. 2008;(8(2):138-143.
Klaiput A, Kitisomprayoonkul W. Increased pinch strength in acute and subacute stroke patients after simultaneous median and ulnar sensory stimulation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009;23(4):351-6.
Kouroukli I, Neofytos D, Panaretou V, et al. Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation for the treatment of intractable postherpetic neuralgia: two case reports and literature review. Pain Pract. 2009;9(3):225-9.
Mirone G, Natale M, Rotondo M. Peripheral median nerve stimulation for treatment of iatrogenic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II after carpal tunnel surgery. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16(6):825-7.
Phrenic Nerve Stimulation
Diaphragm Pacing, Chest Surg Clin N Am, Vol. 8, Issue 2, 05/1998
The Effects of Epimysial Electrode Location on Phrenic Nerve Recruitment and the Relation Between Tidal Volume and Interpulse Interval, IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 06/1999
Onders RP, Elmo MJ, Ignagni AR. Diaphragm pacing stimulation system for tetraplegia in individuals injured during childhood or adolescence. J Spinal Cord Med. 2007;30 Suppl 1:S25-0.
Hirschfield S, Exner G, Luukkaala T, Baer GA. Mechanical ventilation or phrenic nerve stimulation for treatment of spinal cord injury-induced respiratory insufficiency. Spinal Cord. 2008;46(11):738-42.
Vagus Nerve Stimulation
Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Epilepsia, Vol. 39, No. 7, 1998
Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy for Partial-Onset Seizures, A Randomized Active-Control Trial, Neurology, Vol. 51, July 1998
Fisher RS, Krauss GL, Ramsay E, et al. Reassessment: Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Epilepsy: A Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 1999;53:666-669.
Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized, Controlled Acute Phase Trial, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 58 (5), 09/2005
Effects of 12 Months of Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Naturalistic Study, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 58 (5), 09/2005
A One-Year Comparison of Vagus Nerve Stimulation with Treatment as Usual for Treatment-Resistant Depression, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 58 (5), 09/2005
Two-Year Outcome of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Treatment of Major Depressive Episodes, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 66 (9), 09/2005
ECRI Institute. Implantable vagus nerve stimulator for treatment-resistant depression. [Emerging Technology evidence report]. Plymouth Meeting (PA): ECRI Institute; 2008 Dec 12. Available at URL address: http://www.ecri.org
Daban C, Martinez-Aran A, Cruz N, et al. Safety and efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in treatment-resistant depression. A systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2008;110(1-2):1-15.
Dumitriu D, Collins K, Alterman R, et al. Neurostimulatory therapeutics in management of treatment-resistant depression with focus on deep brain stimulation. Mt. Sinai J Med. 2008;75(3):263-75.
Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ. The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagal nerve stimulation in the treatment of depression. 2008;21(1):25-9.
Nirenberg AA, Alpert JE, Gardner-Schulster EE, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation: 2-year outcomes for bipolar versus unipolar treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64(6):455-60.
Schlaepfer TE, Frick C, Zobel A, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation for depression: efficacy and safety in a European study. Psychol Med. 2008;38(5):651-61.
Yu ZJ, Weller RA, Sandidge K. Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Can it be used in adolescents or children with treatment-resistant depression? Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2008;10(2):116-22.
Preskorn SH. Treatment options for the patient who does not respond well to initial antidepressant therapy. Journal of Psychiatr Pract. 2009;15(3):202-10.
Rakofsky JJ, Holtzheimer PE, Nemeroff CB. Emerging targets for antidepressant therapies. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009;13(3):291-302.
Rush AJ, Seifert SE, Clinical issues in considering vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Exp Neurol. 2009;219(1):36-43.
Sperling W, Reulbach U, Kornhuber J. Clinical benefits and cost effectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation in a long-term treatment of patients with major depression. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2009;42(3):85-8.
Grimm S, Bajbouj M. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of depression. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010;10(1):87-92.
Schlaepfer TE, George MS, Mayberg H. WFSB Guidelines on Brain Stimulation Treatments in Psychiatry. The world journal of biological psychiatry. 2010;11:2-18.
Shelton RC, Osuntokun O, Heinloth AN, et al. Therapeutic options for treatment-resistant depression. CNS Drugs. 2010;24(2):131-61.
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Major depression in adults in primary care. Bloomington, MN: ICSI; May 2009. Accessed 1/25/2010. Available at URL address: http://www.icsi.org/depression_5/depression_major_in_adults_in_primary_care_3.html
California Technology Assessment Forum (CTAF). Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment resistant depression. Technology Assessment. San Francisco, CA: CTAF, February 15, 2006. Available at: http://ctaf.org/ass/viewfull.ctaf?id=65198186099. Accessed 1/25/2010.
Percutaneous Neuromodulation Therapy
White PF, Craig WF, Vakharia AS, et al. Anesth Analg. 2000;91(4):949-54.
White PF, Ghoname EA, Ahmed HE, et al. The effect of montage on the analgesic response to percutaneous neuromodulation therapy. Anesth Analg. 2001;92(2):483-7.
Borg-Stein J, Seroussi RE, Bomba L, et al. Safety and efficacy of percutaneous neuromodulation therapy in the management of subacute radiating low back pain. Pain Pract. 2003;3(2):125-34.
Rozen D, Grass GW. Intradiscal electrothermal coagulation and percutaneous neuromodulation therapy in the treatment of discogenic low back pain. Pain Pract. 2005;5(3):228-43.
Occipital Nerve Stimulation
Kapural L, Mekhail N, Hayek SM, et al. Occipital nerve electrical stimulation via the midline approach and subcutaneous surgical leads for treatment of severe occipital neuralgia: A pilot study. Anesth Analg. 2005;101(1):171-174.
Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW, Hentz J, Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic headache--long-term safety and efficacy. Cephalalgia. 2007 Feb;27(2):153-7.
Trentman TL, Dodick DW, Zimmerman RS, Birch BD. Percutaneous occipital stimulator lead tip erosion: report of 2 cases. Pain phys. 2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):253-256.
Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby PJ. Treatment of hemicrania continua by occipital nerve stimulation with a bion device: long-term follow-up of a crossover study. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Nov;7(11):1001-12.
Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby PJ. Treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation in 14 patients. Neurology. 2009 Jan 27;72(4):341-5.
Trentman TL, Rosenfeld DM, Vargas BB, Schwedt TJ, Zimmerman RS, Dodick DW. Greater occipital nerve stimulation via the Bion microstimulator: implantation technique and stimulation parameters. Clinical trial: NCT00205894. Pain Physician. 2009 May-Jun;12(3):621-8.
Clinical Trials.gov. Accessible online at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=occipital+nerve+stimulation. Last accessed July 2011.